Current Recommendation for Breast Imaging

Transgender women with past or current hormone use: Annual mammography starting at age 50 is recommended for any transgender women who have been taking hormone replacement therapy for at least 5 years.

Transgender men: Transgender men who have not had chest reconstructive surgery should have annual mammography as recommended for natal women. Transgender men who have had reduction mammoplasty may have some remaining breast tissue. They should perform a monthly chest self exam and consider screening mammography depending on the amount of residual tissue.


What We Know and What We Do Not Know


Transgender women on long term cross hormone therapy develop breast tissue and may develop the same benign and malignant entities found in cisgender women. They may be at increased breast cancer risk however the cancer rate in this group of people is not known. Studies have shown a relationship between estrogen and increased breast cancer risk in post menopausal women.

Transgender men taking testosterone may be at increased breast cancer risk because testosterone in the body can be converted to estrogen. 

Transgender and cisgender people who have additional breast cancer risk factors such as a family history of breast or ovarian cancer or certain genetic syndromes may be at higher risk for breast cancer. This should be discussed with a health care advisor to determine if screening recommendations are affected.